## 2019. 10. 13.

### Unit conversion - INERTANCE, Unit Converter, Pressure, Temperature

Unit conversion - INERTANCE, Unit Converter, Pressure, Temperature: Unit Conversion calculator by INERTANCE - Pressure, Temperature, Flow rate for engineering works. (Unit Change, Unit Converter)

## Unit Conversion

INERTANCE share the unit conversion calculator for smooth engineering work related noise, vibration and pulsation design. This unti converter includes to change unit for pressure, temperature, flow rate. Specially, flow rate can be estimated very easily to volumetric as well as mass flow rate together. Client can understand how to use this calculator.
##### How to use for Unit converter calculator
1. Define the process condition to calculate both flow rate unit (mass flow and volumetric flow)
2. Pressure condition includes pressure (bara), temperature (degC), Compressibility (Z), Gas constant (8.31 kJ/(kg.mol.K)), MW, Specific heat ratio (Cp/Cv).
3. Input the flow rate, which is available data
4. Automatically calculate other flow rate unit including mass and volumetric flow together

## 2019. 10. 9.

### Centrifugal Pump Driver Sizing-INERTANCE, Hydraulic Power

Centrifugal Pump Driver Sizing-INERTANCE, Hydraulic Power: Centrifugal Pump Driver Sizing Calculator by INERTANCE, to calculate Motor Capacity, Hydraulic Power based on Performance Curve & API 610

## Centrifugal Pump Driver Sizing

INERTANCE shares the engineering calculator for centrifugal pump driver sizing (motor capacity), which is one of possible root cause for site trouble shooting works. The suitable driver sizing such as hydraulic power has to be considered during design phase, when mechanical engineer evaluates the technical bid for centrifugal pump. Driver capacity has to be mainly determined by process condition such as flow rate, head, specific gravity of pumping liquid, which information is included in pump performance curve. And, it is possible to increase the driver power as per pump efficiency, service factor as specified in API 610 11th. This engineering calculator for driver sizing includes the information with hydraulic power, brake horse power with incorporating API service factor.

## How to use this calculator

1. Input the flow rate in m3/hr unit for pumping liquid.
2. Input total head in meter (m) unit based on process condition.
3. Input the specific gravity (S.G) for pumping liquid.
4. If engineer input above three (3) input data, the hydraulic power (Hyd.P, kW) can be calculated.
5. Pump efficiency (%) should be input, which data can be found from pump performance curve.
6. Based on pump efficiency input, the brake horse power (BHP1, kW) can be automatically calculated.
7. As per para 7.1.4 of API 610 11TH, the service factor shall be considered, in case the customer’s pump is designed as per API standard.
8. Then, the brake horse power (BHP2 kW) can be calculated with consideration of API  service factor.

## Pump Motor Capacity Calculator

The drivers for centrifugal pump shall be sized to meet the maximum specified operation conditions. It shall have the nameplate power ratings at least equal to the percentages of power at pump rated conditions given in below table as per para. 7.1.4 of API 610 11th. This service factor should be considered as well as possible process condition specified in pump datasheet.

## Example for Driver Sizing

Driver capacity can be increased as per project requirements, which to be carefully checked by mechanical engineer for procurement, and see below example with various driver sizing with hydraulic power of same performance curve by different requirements.
* Rated point for pump operation in above performance curve
– Flow rate: 104.5 m3/hr
– Speed: 1450 rpm (Fixed speed with induction motor)
– Specific gravity: 0.919
– Pump efficiency: 66%

#### 1) Rated condition

Firstly, the Centrifugal driver capacity can be initially calculated at rated condition as follows;

Sometimes, pump shall have capable of at least a 5% head increase at rated condition by replacement of the impeller(s) with one(s) of larger diameter for different hydraulic design for future condition. 5% head increase of total head (42.4m) has to be input (42.4m x 105% = 44.52m)

#### 3) End of curve

– Sometimes, Centrifugal pumps have to operate around end of curve by transient condition of parallel operation, and/or some of project specifications request to have lager driver capacity to cover up to end of curve point. The operating point at end of curve has to be input.
* End of curve point for pump operation in above performance curve
– Flow rate: 128 m3/hr
– Specific gravity: 0.919
– Pump efficiency: 62%

#### 4) Test condition

– Sometimes, the driver has to be tested with driven equipment together for design reliability at manufacturer’s shop as per project specific requirements. In this case, higher specific gravity (water = 1.0) has to be considered, which cause the driver sizing increasing for test condition.
* Test condition for shop inspection
– Flow rate: 104.5 m3/hr
– Speed: 1450 rpm (Fixed speed with induction motor)
– Specific gravity: 1.0
– Pump efficiency: 66%
Based on above steps for driver sizing, we can understand that the motor capacity can be various and increased by different specific requirements. These kinds of variation can effect under or over-estimated for centrifugal pump driver motor sizing. Mechanical engineer need to consider this matter carefully.
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## 2019. 10. 6.

### Pipe calculator, support span length for pulsation - INERTANCE

Pipe calculator, support span length for pulsation - INERTANCE: Piping system: Pipe calculator for support design (support calculator) against running speed of reciprocaitng equipments (pulsation induced force).

## Guideline for supports location

INERTANCE provides the pre-design calculator for pipe support span length against pulsation excitation from running speed of positive displacement equipment. This calculator is prepared for the initial piping support design of reciprocating compressor, to minimize the modification of the piping system due to mechanical study. After the initial piping arrangement is set-up, the final support location shall be determined by acoustic and mechanical study results.
Separation margin is defined as margin between the harmonic forcing excitation and the natural frequency of a compressor, pump or piping system element. Generally a 10% actual separation margin is available, and further margin for 10% uncertainty in natural frequency predictions. Therefore, total 20% of design separation margin is recommended.
For double acting compressor, the significant pulsation-induced forces at one and two times of rotational speed will be generated. Hence, resonance shall be avoided at these frequencies, suggesting predicted mechanical natural frequencies should be at least 20% above two times of running speed.

## How to use this calculator

See below how to use this support span calculator
1. Input the equipment operating speed (RPM).
2. Press ‘Tab’ on keyboard to move next space.
3. To specify the equipment type with single acting or double acting. Support span length will be calculated for single acting type based on one (1) time of running speed, for double acting type based on two (2) times of running speed.
4. To specify the separation margin to be specified. (Typically 20% margin is recommended as per API 618 5th, para. 7.9.4.2.5.3.2)
5. To specify the pipe support type with simply supported (S) or fixed supported (F).